The story of my experiments with truth. TRANSLATED FROM THE GUJARATI. BY MAHADEV DESAI. GANDHI BOOK CENTRE. Bombay Sarvodaya Mandal. I simply want to tell the story of my numerous experiments with truth, and as my But I shall not mind, if every page of it speaks only of my experiments. I believe. Copies It is not my purpose to attempt a real autobiography or story of my life. I simply want to tell the story of my numerous experiments with truth, and as.
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Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiment with Truth. Read online, download PDF version or read abridged version. This may be the first time in the history of books, but here goes: Dedicated to. versions of old 2 States The Stor Hacking For ciofreedopadkin.ml This may be the first time in the history of books, but here goes: Dedicated to. versions of old 2 States The Stor Chetan Bhagat's "2 States:The Story of My.
When Gandhi, as a matter of principle, refused to leave the first class compartment, he was thrown off the train. Very soon after his arrival, Gandhi's initial bafflement and indignation at racist policies turned into a growing sense of outrage and propelled him into assuming a position as a public figure at the assembly of Transvaal Indians, where he delivered his first speech urging Indians not to accept inequality but instead to unite, work hard, learn English and observe clean living habits.
Although Gandhi's legal work soon start to keep him busy, he found time to read some of Tolstoy's work, which greatly influenced his understanding of peace and justice and eventually inspired him to write to Tolstoy, setting the beginning of a prolific correspondence.
Both Tolstoy and Gandhi shared a philosophy of non-violence and Tolstoy's harsh critique of human society resonated with Gandhi's outrage at racism in South Africa.
Both Tolstoy and Gandhi considered themselves followers of the Sermon on the Mount from the New Testament, in which Jesus Christ expressed the idea of complete self-denial for the sake of his fellow men. Gandhi also continued to seek moral guidance in the Bhagavad-Gita, which inspired him to view his work not as self-denial at all, but as a higher form of self-fulfillment. Adopting a philosophy of selflessness even as a public man, Gandhi refused to accept any payment for his work on behalf of the Indian population, preferring to support himself with his law practice alone.
But Gandhi's personal quest to define his own philosophy with respect to religion did not rely solely on sacred texts.
At the time, he also engaged in active correspondence with a highly educated and spiritual Jain from Bombay, his friend Raychandra, who was deeply religious, yet well versed in a number of topics, from Hinduism to Christianity. The more Gandhi communicated with Raychandra, the more deeply he began to appreciate Hinduism as a non violent faith and its related scriptures. Yet, such deep appreciation also gave birth to a desire to seek inner purity and illumination, without solely relying on external sources, or on the dogma within every faith.
Thus, although Gandhi sought God within his own tradition, he espoused the idea that other faiths remained worthy of study and contained their own truths.
Not surprisingly, even after his work assignment concluded, Gandhi soon found a reason to remain in South Africa. This pivotal reason involved the "Indian Franchise Bill", with which the Natal legislature intended to deprive Indians of the right to vote. No opposition existed against this bill, except among some of Gandhi's friends who asked him to stay in South Africa and work with them against this new injustice against Indians, who white South Africans disparagingly called "coolies.
Even in Natal, where Indians had more influence, they were not allowed to go out after 9 p. The new bill which prohibited Indians from voting in Natal only codified existing injustice in writing.
Although a last-minute petition drive failed to the Indian Franchise Bill from passing, Gandhi remained active and organized a much larger petition, which he sent to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London, and distributed to the press in South Africa, Britain and India.
The petition raised awareness of the plight of Indians and generating discussions in all three continents to the point where both the Times of London and the Times of India published editorials in support of the Indian right to the vote.
Gandhi also formed a new political organization called the Natal Indian Congress a clear reference to the Indian National Congress , which held regular meetings and soon, after some struggles with financing, started its own library and debating society.
He was also thrown of the Train when he didn't agree to move from his first class seat which he paid for. Though, at first, Gandhi intended to remain in South Africa for a month, or a year at most, he ended up working in South Africa for about twenty years. After his initial assignment was over, he succeeded in growing his own practice to about twenty Indian merchants who contracted manage their affairs. This work allowed him to both earn a living while also finding time to devote to his mission as a public figure.
During his struggle against inequality and racial discrimination in South Africa, Gandhi became known among Indians all around the world as "Mahatma," or "Great Soul.
In , Gandhi made a brief return to India and returned to his wife and children. For the first time, Gandhi realized that Indians had come to admire his work greatly and experienced a taste of his own popularity among the people, when he visited Madras, an Indian province, where most manual laborers had originated.
Although his fellow-Indians greeted him in large crowds with applause and adulation, he sailed back to South Africa with his family in December Gandhi had become very well known in South Africa as well, to the point where a crowd of rioters awaited him at Port Natal, determined that he should not be allowed to enter.
Many of them also mistakenly believed that all the dark-skinned passenger on the ship that took Gandhi to Natal were poor Indian immigrants he had decided to bring along with him, when, in reality, these passengers were mostly returning Indian residents of Natal. Fortunately, Gandhi was able to establish a friendly relationship with the British in South Africa so the Natal port's police superintendent and his wife escorted him to safety. After this incident, local white residents began to actually regard him with greater respect.
An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth Summary & Study Guide
As Gandhi resumed his work at the Natal Indian Congress, his loyalty to the British guided him to assist them in the Boer War, which started three years later. Because Gandhi remained a passionate pacifist, he wanted to participate in the Boer War without actually engaging in violence so he organized and led an Indian Medical Corps which served the British in a number of battles, including the important battle of Spion Kop in January At the time, Gandhi believed that the British Empire shared the values of liberty and equality that he himself embraced and that, by virtue of defending those principles, the British constitution deserved the loyalty of all British subjects, including Indians.
He viewed racist policy in South Africa as a temporary characteristic aberration, rather than a permanent tendency. With respect to the British in India, at this point in his life, Gandhi considered their rule beneficial and benevolent. The armed conflict between the British and Dutch raged on for over three years of often brutal fighting with the British conquering the Transvaal and Orange Free state territories.
Gandhi expected that the British victory would establish justice in South Africa and present him with an opportunity to return to India. He wanted to attend the meeting of the Indian National Congress, whose mission was to provide a social and political forum for the Indian upper class.
Founded in by the British, the Congress had no real political power and expressed pro-British positions. Gandhi wanted to attend its meeting nevertheless, as he was hoping to pass a resolution in support of the Indian population in South Africa.
Before he left for Bombay, Gandhi promised the Natal Indian Congress that he would return to support their efforts, should they need his help. As Gandhi attended the Indian National Congress, his hopes came true.
An Autobiography or the Story of My Experiments with Truth
Gokhale, one of the most prominent Indian politicians of the time, supported the resolution for the rights of Indians in South Africa and the resolution passed. Through Gokhale, in whose house Gandhi stayed for a month, Gandhi met many political connections that would serve him later in life. However, his promise to always aid his friends in Natal soon prompted him to return to South Africa, when he received an urgent telegram informing him that the British and Boers had now formed a peaceful relationship and often acted together to the detriment of the Indian population, as Britain was planning to live local white individuals in power in South Africa, much like it had done in Canada and Australia.
Gandhi travelled back to South Africa immediately and met with Joseph Chamberlain, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and presented him with a paper on the injustice against the Indian population but Chamberlain indicated that the Indians would have to obey the new rulers of South Africa, now called the "Afrikaners," which included both Dutch and British local settlers.
Gandhi began to organize a fast response to this new South African political configuration. Instead of working in Natal, he now established a camp in the newly conquered Transvaal region and began helping Indians who had escaped from the war in that region, and now had to download overly expensive re-entry passes.
He also represented poor Indians whose dwellings in a shantytown the authorities had dispossessed. Gandhi also started a new magazine, Indian Opinion, that advocated for political liberty and equal rights in South Africa.
The magazine, which initially included several young women from Europe, expanded its staff around the country, increasing both Gandhi's popularity and the public support for his ideas.
At round same time, Gandhi read John Ruskin's book Unto This Last , which maintained that the life of manual labor was superior to all other ways of living. As he adopted this belief, Gandhi chose to abandon Western dress and habits, and he moved his family and staff to a Transvaal farm called the Phoenix, where he even gave renounced the use of an oil-powered engine and printed Indian Opinion by hand-wheel, and performed agriculture labor using old, manual farming equipment.
He began to conceive of his public work as a mission to restore old Indian virtue and civilization, rather than fall prey to modern Western influence, which included electricity and technology.
The Story of My Experiments with Truth
Between and , he also changed another aspect of his personal life by achieving Brahmacharya, or the voluntary abstention from sexual relations. He made this choice as part of his philosophy of selflessness and self-restraint.
He continues studying religion and founds the Natal Indian Congress. He heads back to India for a while, where he meets his mentor Gokhale and others, but is soon recalled to South Africa to continue "public work," which is his term for what we today might call activism. In Part Three, Gandhi develops his spiritual practice of self-restraint by taking the brahmacharya vow of celibacy—by now, he's had his four sons, all with Kasturbai—and develops his political power by leading an Indian ambulance corps in the Boer War.
He returns to India, where he attends the Indian National Congress and stays with Gokhale, his mentor. He also practices law there.
When his second son becomes very ill, Gandhi refuses the doctor's advice to give him meat broth, which goes to show how seriously our author takes his religious ideals. Gandhi is full steam ahead by this point for sure.
He tells us about his religious studies, his experiments in diet fruits and nuts only: dang , and his thoughts on the brahmacharya vow. He's glad to be celibate, saying that life with sex is "insipid and animal-like. Part Five shows Gandhi at the height of his political power. This Autobiography is divided in five parts starting from his childhood days, his experience in South Africa where he experimented with the powerful weapon of Satyagraha and his transformation from Mohan to Mahatma, his various experiments on fundamental principles of Truth and God, till the year , after which his life was so public that he felt there was hardly anything to write about.
Accepting his status as a great innovator in the struggle against racism, violence and colonialism, Gandhi felt that his ideas needed deeper understanding. Gandhi explains that he was after truth rooted in devotion to God and attributed the turning point, success and challenges in his life to the will of God.
Gandhi says that his attempt to get closer to this divine power led him seek purity through simple living, dietary practices he called himself a fruitarian , celibacy and ahimsa- a life without violence.
Perhaps never before on so grand scale has any man succeeded in shaping the course of history while using the weapon of Peace — Ahimsa Non-violence.
To many it will have the value of a new Bible or a new Gita; for here are words that have come out from the depth of truth, here is tireless striving that stretches its arms towards perfection.
All rights reserved.The method of non-violence and Satyagrah.
As Gandhi attended the Indian National Congress, his hopes came true. He tries to intervene with an acquaintance, now the Political Agent in England, on behalf of his brother and they have sharp words.
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He records the profound impact of the play Harishchandra and says,"I read it with intense interest While reading that book I was astonished at his spirit of service. Meanwhile, his mother is worried he'll lose his way in the foreign culture and start drinking alcohol, eating meat his family is vegetarian , and sleeping with women other than his wife, who's to stay at home in India while her husband has his big adventure. Although his fellow-Indians greeted him in large crowds with applause and adulation, he sailed back to South Africa with his family in December Even in Natal, where Indians had more influence, they were not allowed to go out after 9 p.
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