Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book covers LTE (Long-Term Evolution) Layer 2/3 radio protocols as well. Provides a unique focus on radio protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book covers . RADIO PROTOCOLS. FOR LTE AND. LTE-ADVANCED. Seungjune Yi. SungDuck Chun. YoungDae Lee. Sungjun Park. SungHoon Jung. LG Electronics , South.
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Advanced By Seungjune Yi, Sungduck Chun, Youngdae Lee, Sungjun Park, Sunghoon. Jung pdf. Radio Protocols For Lte And. An introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-advanced, SAE and 4G mobile communications .. control, radio link control and packet data convergence protocols. The third. Provides a unique focus on radio protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A). Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book.
Three types of multiple antenna categories are applied. First, path diversity improves system performance. Thus, diversity can work on the transmitter or receiver or both simultaneously. Second, beam steering to improve coverage consists of little cells that cover a given area. Third, spatial multiplexing enables the use of separate antennas in space to allow simultaneous transmission of more than one stream of data in both time and frequency.
In addition, beam forming is a more complex technique used to further enhance transmission. As such, the feedback of the channel condition is used to pre code the signal Li et al. When used, the input and output terms refer to channels not antennas.
MIMO technology itself has many different types. Single Input Single Output SISO which is the most basic radio channel access mode, is defined as a single antenna in the transmitter and a single antenna in the receiver.
A low signal to noise ratio results in a more robust radio signal Lee et al. MIMO transmitter diversity and receiver diversity can increase spectrum efficiency and channel capacity for different signals sent by various transmitters that represent different data streams, each of which is sent at the same time and frequency Dahlman et al.
Different data streams have been received by each antenna in receiver diversity. Each data stream is decoded and user data are retrieved. This process is called spatial multiplexing, with the number of antennas in MIMO exceeding more than two. Having more than one antenna does not mean that the system is MIMO. Diversity can be merged with MIMO spatial multiplexing to improve performance.
With regard to MIMO, the path has to be further de-correlated. Thus, the layer with spatial multiplexing becomes synonymous with the stream. How does MIMO work? If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. First published: Print ISBN: Idle Mode Procedure; Packet Data Convergence Protocol and Public Warning Systems Presents the LTE radio interface protocol layers in a readable manner, to enhance the material in the standards publications From an expert author team who have been directly working on the 3GPP standards It is targeted at professionals working or intending to work in the area and can also serve as supplementary reading material for students who need to know how theory on the most extensively used mobile radio interface today is put into practice.
Summary PDF Request permissions. This led to the introduction of LTE-A, which is still currently being tested and has introduced considerable increase in the data rates, theoretically. The main areas that have been improved upon include Carrier Fig. Carrier aggregation with contiguous and non-contiguous carrier Aggregation CA , enhanced use of multi-antenna techniques aggregation .
A brief introduction of these main areas will be of component carriers frequencies used in each allocation. These have proven successful in achieving Carrier aggregation has influenced the MAC and the PHY increased data throughput for mobile communication. Carrier Aggregation MIMO describes the use of multiple antennas two or more The best way to increase network capacity is to increase the for the transmission and reception of different data streams.
The increment in bandwidth was done Similar resources in frequency and time are used and these through carrier aggregation of the carriers used in release 8 signals are separated usually using different reference signals 3 .
There are nine different transmission modes frame . The UL CoMP is known as Joint Reception if data received These transmission modes have been introduced to be able to is a combination of signals from two different receiving adjust the type of multi-antenna transmission scheme used points, received from a single UE .
These transmission modes differ in the number of layers, IV. However, such changes were not mapped to different antennas. Precoding makes the necessary for the LTE-A.
This is as a result of the changes achievement of the best reception at the receiver possible. Fading is handled by transmitting a reference signal in were not implemented or were modified for efficiency. Figure addition to the data being transmitted. The major changes introduced in the architecture were C.
These are low power base stations layer 3 of the protocol stack of LTE. Layer 2 protocol includes which enhances coverage and capacity at cell edges. Relay functionality based on spectral usage can paragraphs.
Position-assisted fast handover schemes for LTE-advanced network under high mobility scenarios
Relay functionality based on transparency of the relay station defines which part of the structure the relay identifies with; whether the relay is a part of the donor cell or if it controls a cell on its own.
Home eNBs Femtocells Home eNBs, also known as a femtocell, are a short range, low-cost, low transmit and miniature BS performing on a licensed cellular network band. Femtocells possibly can reduce traffic and transmission range of User Equipment UE compared to relay stations than can only reduce the transmission distance not the traffic as they can only communicate with the Base station BS.
This release was introduced as a Fig.
Two [3, p. Joint Transmission describes two or more points transmitting in the 4 control element to the UE . LTE User Plane [2, p. These skills are normally acquired and improved as 1 Radio Resource Control RRC the number of years of experience increases. The flowchart in figure one summarizes requirement for network planning especially for virgin networks. Market Modelling Market modeling is nontechnical but very important phase in network planning. This is applicable to a virgin network green field and is usually done only once in the initial phase of deployment.
This stage includes data collection of the proposed market for the LTE-advanced network. The data needed at this stage is the business plan of the network operator, demographic database and geographic information system GIS of the proposed market. The approximate classes of people in the area of interest need to be known, it may be based on income level, occupation, literacy level and age bracket. Wireless Network Strategy This aspect is dependent on many factors like available or 2 Packet Data Convergence Protocol PDCP licensed bandwidth, deployment strategy like infrastructure This protocol deals with the IP header compression User sharing or agreement with property owners, Vendor Plane , encryption and integrity protection Control Plane equipment selection commercial and non-technical may be only.
The RF propagation characteristics, interface transmission and in addition, it performs error frequency re-use pattern and interference management are correction with Automatic Repeat Request ARQ method.
A simulation can 4 Medium Access Control MAC be conducted with use of equally spaced cell sites eNBs with This protocol performs scheduling, priority handling, the smallest radius of coverage expected for deployment, free physical layer retransmission and multiplexing of different space propagation and GIS information. The frequency and logical channels to a single transport channel .
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Driving testing with planning kits is strongly aim of enhancing data transmission within the network. In recommended at this stage to capture out of bound and LTE-A, carrier aggregation has necessitated some changes in external interferences.
The network planner must specify the the physical and MAC layer procedures. Network Planning Based on the on the result obtained from the step one and two, the number of required cell sites can be estimated, deployment strategy and spectrum usage techniques.
The Fig. Wireless Network Planning flow chart[1, p.
In morphology method, scanty measurement is environment is the error. Measurement Analysis measurement will suffice. The duration of the testing is not as much important as the analysis of the measured result, as this The measurement is analyzed for both stationary and will determine the performance of the network. It will be movement to see the effect of fast fading on the channel.A simulation can 4 Medium Access Control MAC be conducted with use of equally spaced cell sites eNBs with This protocol performs scheduling, priority handling, the smallest radius of coverage expected for deployment, free physical layer retransmission and multiplexing of different space propagation and GIS information.
Third, spatial multiplexing enables the use of separate antennas in space to allow simultaneous transmission of more than one stream of data in both time and frequency. The RRC connection is managed by one cell plus the primary serving cell rendered by the primary components carrier which includes both DL and UL. Optimization is a useful tool in coverage planning. This draft provides insight into different options for deploying ICN in mobile networks and how they impact mobile providers and end-users.
ICN is a rapidly emerging technology with built in features for efficient multimedia data delivery, however majority of the work is focused on fixed networks.