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This has been done considerably in Chapters 2 to 6. Chapters 7 to 9 are entirely newly written. Let us begin then with the statement that the seven well-known varieties of yoga practice among the Hindus can be listed as follows:— 1. Hatha Yoga. Laya Yoga. Bhakti Yoga. Mantra Yoga. The last four emphasize the importance of material aids, by working largely on the outside or on the "terrestrial man," which is composed of the body along with its bundle of habitual emotions and memories and knowledge.

Here the law of growth from within is paramount. By the use of thought, thought grows. This is true also of love and the will. There is no other way in which these growths can be obtained.

Concentration and Meditation: A Manual of Mind Development (Element Classic Editions)

A realization of this fact sets the novice on his own feet, and cures him at the outset of any tendency to lean or depend upon others, even upon experts and teachers he may admire.

Still, this exercise can be hindered or at least made very difficult by any bad condition of the body in such matters as nervous disorders, irregular breathing, bad balance, and undue tension. Still there is no harm, they often add, in just a little hatha-yoga as well, provided that the aspirant does not fall into a state of dependence on anything or any person, and does not seek merely the comforts of the body, emotions and knowledge, or make his purpose the increase of his power with a view to gain in these three fields.

The term hatha-yoga, when used strictly, refers specifically only to the fourth school on our list, for it is specially devoted to breathing practices, dealing with the incoming and outgoing—or ha and tha breaths. But the term is quite elastic and portions of the remaining three groups of teachings are generally included, to supplement the breathing exercises of the hatha-yoga schools.

Inasmuch as all the four schools operate by external means they are all classable as in the general field of hatha-yoga, as they all work on the body and environment. One of the great gains of modern yoga is that the "hair shirt" has been 19 of Great Systems Of Yoga entirely given up. The new race is not afraid of the world. It does not regard it as evil or of the devil. Modern man can trust himself amidst all the lures. He can handle them and be their master. He knows his own powers and can very well judge the results of his use of them.

He can envisage a metaphysical goal and also be aware of the metaphysical in the physical as he goes along. He feels that whatever he may gain by any exercise or experience in his will, his goodwill and his intelligence is all to the good, quite apart from any so-called material gain, and there is no objection to that in addition.

He knows that time will heal all the wounds and ripen the character. So in the field of yoga today he is not in fear of missing anything, nor dependent upon a particular guide, but will choose his exercises with all the natural confidence with which he can choose a good cigar. He asks for information, not gifts, nor orders, and here the Orient spreads it out before him for his choice. According to individual temperament each will choose, and then travel in the way that suits him best. He begins with a description of yoga as "Chitta vritti nirodha.

As a gardener uses a spade for digging, so a man uses the mind for dealing with the world. Acted upon by the things of the outer world through the senses, it presents to the man within a picture of those things, as on the plate of a camera. Acted upon by the will of the man within, it transmits into action in the body the thought-power that is its positive characteristic.

It transmits from the world to the man within, and also from the man within to the outer world. Vritti means literally a whirlpool, and nirodha signifies restraint or control. Thus yoga practice is control of the whirlpools or changes of the mind or, in simple terms, voluntary direction of what is commonly called thought, or control of the ideas which are in the mind.

The mind of the average man is far from being an instrument within his control. It is being impressed at all times, even during sleep to some extent, with the pictures of a thousand objects clamoring for his attention, through ears, skin, eyes, nose and mouth, and by telepathic impressions from others.

In addition to all that, it is in a state of agitation on its own account, bubbling in a hundred places with disturbing visions, excited by uncontrolled emotion or worrying thoughts. Let him achieve control of all this, says Patanjali, and his reward will be that he shall stand in his own state.

Ideas in the mind should be material for thought, not merely ideas, just as the muscles are useful means of action, not mere lumps of flesh. To be a positive thinker, lover and willer, master in one's own house, is to be oneself, in one's own true state; all the rest is slavery or bondage, willing or unwilling. To its master, the man, the vrittis of chitta are always only objects of knowledge, because of his not being involved in them, say Aphorisms iv The final aim of Patanjali's yoga is to cease this slavery and achieve freedom.

The technical name for this great achievement is kaivalya, independence. Every man feels in himself some spark of that divine freedom, which he then calls the will, and that is the power with which he can control his mind. In Patanjali's yoga the aspirant uses his will in self-control. Thought governs things, we know; so much so that every voluntary movement of the body follows a mental picture; therefore all work done by us, even with the hands, is done by thought-power. But will controls thought, concentrates it, expands it, causes its flow—directs, in fact, its three operations of concentration, meditation, and contemplation.

The perfection of these three is the aim of the Patanjali yoga exercises. Patanjali's systematic instruction for practical training is given in two portions. But it is much more than preliminary. It is the yoga of action, the yoga which must be practiced all the time in daily life.

Without it, meditation would be useless, for yoga involves not retirement or retreat but a change in attitude towards the world. A man must become master of himself, whatever other people and beings, whose activities constitute the major portion of his world, may do.

The object of the preliminary yoga or yoga of action is to weaken what are called the five kleshas. A klesha is literally an affliction, just as one would speak of a crooked spine or blindness as an affliction. They are faults of the man himself, not outside causes of trouble; the world can never hurt us, except through our own faults, and these five reduce us to pitiful slavery. Having submitted to these, a man is constantly moved from outside, governed too much by circumstances.

A house, a chair and a pen are something to a man, by which he can satisfy his body and mind. They could not be the same things to a cow. But the question now is: what are all these things to the real man, who is eternal, pure and painless? To look at all things as for the use of such a being is to begin to see them without error.

It is to have true motives.

Thinking oneself to be a certain object or mind, or the combination of these even in the form of an excellent and useful personality, means attachment to things. We are not a personality, but we possess one, and it is not to be despised if it is useful to the real man. The error of Self-personality or egotism leads to the next two afflictions which are personal liking and disliking.

These two are those unreasoning impulses which lead men to judge and value things by their influence on the comforts and pleasures and prides of the personality, not according to their value for an immortal being. In this course there is constant apparent loss as well as gain, because no man can pay full attention to all the lessons of life at once, or exert at the same time all his faculties, any more than a child in school can properly think of geography, 24 of Great Systems Of Yoga history and mathematics in the period which is devoted to music.

In Hindu life, before it was disturbed from the West, men were wise enough in old age to give the family business into the hands of their mature sons, and devote themselves to the study and contemplation of life; and just as in the West it is considered the bounden duty of parents to support their children with every kindness and give them the opportunities that their stage in life requires, so it was always considered in the East the duty of the grown up children to support their old people with every kindness, treat them with honor and dignity as the source of their own opportunity and power, and give them every opportunity that their stage of life requires.

The material requirements of these retired people were very small—a corner in the home, some food and occasional clothes. It is not presumed that in the preliminary stages the candidate will completely destroy the five afflictions.

His object will be attained if he succeeds in definitely weakening them. Three kinds of practices are prescribed for this purpose in the yoga of action.

The first is often translated as austerity, and sometimes even as mortification. The word means literally "heat" and the nearest English equivalent to that when it is applied to human conduct is "effort. In order to appreciate the importance of meditation in the Buddhist life one has only to consider the best known summaries of the Buddha's teaching as given by himself.

First comes Dana, universal charity, then Sila, strict morality, and thirdly, in progressive importance, Bhavana, mind-development. Again, "Cease to do evil; learn to do good; cleanse your own heart; this is the religion of the Buddhas. It is true that in one sense the various steps must be trodden simultaneously.

One need not wait for ethical perfection before beginning to meditate, for it is only in meditation that the necessary wisdom and strength will be released for the task of self-purification. At the same time, it is well to consider these steps in the order given by the Buddha, for only when the preliminary stages are well in hand will the full benefits of meditation be obtained.

All this applies in particular to a still more famous summary of the Buddhist way of life, the Noble Eightfold Path, whose steps are frequently described as falling into three main groups. First, under right views and aspirations comes Right Knowledge; secondly, under right speech, action and livelihood comes Right Action, and finally, under the last three stages, usually translated as right effort, concentration and meditation, comes Right Mind-development.

It seems clear, therefore, that meditation, using the term to summarize the last three stages of the Path, is not merely an integral part of Buddhism, but the very climax of its other doctrines, laws and practices.

Through this alone perfection lies; through this alone can one with patient toil unveil the Buddha light within. The field of mind-development, in brief, lies between the man of average culture and his further spiritual development as a bridge between mere worldly perfection, however gilded the shackles of Samsara, and the inner world of Reality where, on the threshold of Nirvana, he sees for the first time the true nature of the illusion left behind.

The Importance of Right Motive "Prepare thyself, for thou wilt have to travel on alone.

The Teacher can but point the way. It must needs be difficult, for the untrained stallions of the mind must be brought under control, and the littlest 'fond offence' brought out into light and slain to rise no more. There are dangers on the Way, and those who succumb to them. As is pointed out in W.

Judge's Culture of Concentration, "Immense fields of investigation and experiment have to be traversed; dangers unthought of and forces unknown are to be met; and all must be overcome, for in this battle there is no quarter asked or given. Only with some such motive, however dimly formulated in the mind, is it wise to begin the practice of mind-development.

Knowledge, and the power which knowledge confers, is a neutral force, becoming good or evil according as it is applied.

Rightly used it is the high road to perfection; abused, it can create a hell past human imagining. Between the two extremes of pure benevolence and absolute selfishness lie a variety of motives, all of which must sooner or later be eradicated from the mind. There is the desire to gain a superiority over one's fellows, either in one's own esteem or in actual competition in worldly affairs; there is the desire to find an escape from the monotony of daily duty or, more often in the case of women, a relief from the tedium of a purposeless existence; or again there may be a desire to experiment in some new 'stunt' with which to amuse oneself and one's equally ineffective friends.

There is only one right motive for mind-development, an understanding of the nature and purpose of man's evolution, and the will to hasten that evolution in order that all life may be the sooner brought to enlightenment. Wherefore let every student pause, and consider well before embarking on this final science, this final stage of the ascent towards the Goal. Let him before he seeks the Changeless be certain that he wearies of the world of change, and longs with a yearning past denial to find and win Reality.

Some reach this stage by an all too intimate acquaintance with the truth of suffering; some by an intellectual understanding of the illusory nature of phenomena and the will to discover the Noumenon which lies behind; others again are impelled by the rising call of pure compassion to dedicate their lives to lessening by just so much that "mighty sea of sorrow formed of the tears of men.

Shalt thou be saved and hear the whole world cry? Once the feet are turned towards enlightenment the heart's attraction to the world is left behind. To move too soon is to intensify unduly the strain of rival attractions. That the practice of meditation tends to remove the fetters of suffering by raising the consciousness to a level above its sway is the testimony of all who practise it, but this is not the motive which will lead one to the Goal.

Choose the way for its own sake before the life is entered. Right motive is always impersonal, an impersonal turning of the will towards the removal of all suffering, without undue attention to one's own, and an effort to uncover within each form of life that 'Essence of Mind,' which, as the Sutra of Hui Neng points out, 'is intrinsically pure'. Self-development or Service Do not be deceived by the false antithesis of self-development and service, the Arhat and the Bodhisattva ideal.

On the one hand, no man can be of service to others until he has attained some mastery of his own instruments; on the other hand, all self-development and purification is undertaken in vain so long as there remains thought of self. Once more, the wise man treads the Middle Way, for his life is a happy alternation between introversion and extraversion, between the subjective life of meditation and the objective life of service.

In service the subjective finds its liberation, yet that service will not be wise unless it is actuated from an understanding gained in the meditation hour.

The word has many meanings, varying with the spiritual development of the individual, but save in the true mystic its essence is always supplication to some external Being or Power. In meditation, however, there is no such element of importuning, of begging for what one has not. At the best the method of prayer is a yearning of the heart; meditation, on the other hand, reorientates the mind, thereby producing the knowledge by which all that is rightly wanted is acquired.

The meditator does not ask for guidance, for he knows that a purified mind can call upon the Wisdom which dwells within; he does not crave for virtues, for he knows that in meditation he may and will acquire them; nor does he intercede for others when by his own unaided efforts he may assist them to the extent that their own karma will permit.

In brief, prayer at its best is the approach of the heart, and produces the Mystic; meditation, with the wise service which accompanies it, produces the Knower. There is a point, however, where the two methods meet. If by prayer be meant 'a lifting oneself to the level of the Eternal,' or even, if the desire be impersonal, 'the soul's sincere desire, uttered or unexpressed,' it ceases to be prayer in the ordinary sense of the term and rises to the level of meditation.

It is the element of supplication to an outside power, as distinct from a conscious union with the God within, which distinguishes the two. The way of meditation is the way of knowledge, and the aim of all such knowledge is to find and identify oneself with the Self within. The simplest analysis is that of St.

Paul into Body, Soul and Spirit, the first including the complex personality, the second all that is thought of as the Higher Self, and Spirit being as useful a term as any for what the Buddha called the "Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated and Unformed.

In considering these three divisions it is well to begin with That of which the others are the vehicles or forms. It is all too easy to think of man as having a soul or spirit, whereas in truth each man, each form of life, is in essence a spark of the Flame, 'a fragment of the Undivided clothed in the garments of illusion'.

Hence the wealth of analogy and symbol used to describe evolution the word itself means to unfold as the revelation of an already existing splendour, a shedding of the veils which hide Reality. Not without reason does the East epitomise its wisdom in the phrase, "Become what you are. In India known as Atman it is the essential Man, yet in that it is but an indivisible aspect of the nameless All no man may claim that it is his alone.

Hence the Buddhist doctrine of anatta, not Atta Atman designed to remove the illusion that there is any abiding principle in man, that there is in his composition any single attribute which distinguishes him eternally from other forms of life. In brief. Spirit, like Nirvana, IS, and every form of life, high or low, is but an everchanging manifestation of the eternally Unmanifest. The most tenuous of its veils is Buddhi, the home of intuition, and this, together with Manas, mind, comprises what may be called the higher Self, as opposed to the composite personality whose final garment is the outward body of clay.

Each one of these bodies has a life and form of its own, the complex whole forming the Universe in miniature and therefore the key to all the Wisdom yet unknown. Unfortunately for our comfort, the desires of these vehicles are in the lower stages of evolution often incompatible with one another, and invariably inimical to the interests of the Self.


The body has its own coarse physical desires; the emotional or passional nature craves for a strong vibration to give it stimulus; the rational or thinking mind cries out for its own food, and, like an unbroken stallion, fiercely resents the slightest attempt at control.

This complex personality, the Buddhist skandhas, wages unceasing warfare with the higher Self for command of the whole, yet until this battle be finally won by the higher vehicles, this truer, slowly evolving Self can never fulfil its destiny and "merge the Ocean in the drop, the drop within the Ocean".

Most men are so immersed in the claims of the lower, selfish personality that they have lost all sense of that Golden Age of spiritual perfection to which they must eventually return, and for them the sense of warring duality, of unceasing inward strife has not begun.

Sooner or later, however, the fight must be undertaken and fought to a finish on the battleground of the human heart. Those who have no desire to fight must await the birth of courage. As the Master M.

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Sinnett, "Life leads through many conflicts and trials, but he who does naught to conquer them can expect no triumphs. As is said in The Voice of the Silence, "The branches of the tree are shaken by the wind; the trunk remains unmoved.

To produce this perfect alignment is one of the objects of meditation. Now consciousness can function at any level on which it has an instrument. Most men live in their emotions or, at the best, the lower mind, but in meditation one raises the level of consciousness, reaching first the higher mind, the realm of abstract ideas and ideals, and then, at first in flashes of satori, as it is called in Zen Buddhism, and then continuously, the plane of intuition or Pure Knowledge, when thought has become unnecessary and the knower and the knowledge blend in one.

From this point of view, the science of meditation may be called the culture of consciousness. Applying the law of analogy, "as above, so below," the student will understand more and more of the nature of his own being, and thereby arrive the easier at the control of the lower vehicles. Yet let not over-study lead to an egocentric attitude of mind. As is said in Light on the Pathr the right motive for seeking self-knowledge is that which pertains to knowledge and not to self. Though conscious of the influence of strong 'personalities,' of mass suggestion by slogans and advertisement, and even of 'atmosphere' in certain places, it is left to a few advanced psychologists to appreciate the power of thought on health and character.

Yet how many of these have reached an intellectual acceptance, much less a realization of the first verse of the Dhammapada: "All that we are is the result of what we have thought; it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts," and trimmed the sails of their research accordingly?

Yet so it is. All that we are and do is the result of what we have thought, and action, good or bad, may be described as precipitated thought. No single voluntary act can be performed without a preceding motion of the mind, however 'instantaneous'.

From raising the foot to the planning of New Delhi, each act exists as a thought in the mind before that thought appears as an act. Our behaviour, then, is the outcome of our mental processes, of what we are, but what we are at the moment depends on what we have done in the past.

Now Buddhist philosophy has always taught, and modern science is gradually coming into line, that force and matter are interchangeable terms. There is neither an ultimate unit of matter nor of energythe concepts are interchangeable. At one end of the scale, however, force is so little limited with matter that it may be thought of as 'pure' force, and at the other end matter is so dense that it may be regarded as motionless.

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Between these two extremes lies every degree of density of matter and purity of force. Now the level at which thought functions is higher than the highest level which the eye can see, yet thought is itself a form of matter as regards the medium in which it moves, though it may be regarded as force as regards its origin. But if the skilful hands of the potter can mould a lump of clay into the likeness of his thought, how much more does every thinker to some extent, and the trained thinker to a very great extent, mould the more tenuous matter of thought into definite shape as he decides at will.

Hence the saying "thoughts are things," and hence the meaning of the word 'imagination,' which means image-building. These 'thought-forms,' however, not only exist in the imagination but are to be seen by a trained clairvoyant persisting in the thinker's mental atmosphere. The power of such thoughts varies, of course, with the intensity with which they were created, and their repetition. Most of them swiftly fade away; others remain, to have their inevitable reaction for good or bad on the mind which gave them birth.

But the effect of the thought-form does not end with its creation.

Even as radio waves are picked up wherever a set is tuned-in to their wave-length, so the thoughts which each of us think each moment of the day go forth into the world to influence for good or bad each other human mind. Hence such phenomena as mob-psychology and telepathy, and hence the power of suggestion which is so little understood and so terribly abused.

Vetrano for accuracy in the Natural Hygiene components. As a poet, editor and essayist, T. Eliot was one of the defining figures of twentieth century poetry. Alfred Prufrock" and "The Waste Land". The Spiritual Exercises of St.

Ignatius of Loyola outline the rigorous self-examination and spiritual meditations St. Ignatius set forth. Readers will learn how to make a new beginning on the path to holiness, repenting of their sins and attaining freedom from Satan's power.

Emotion-Focused Therapy provides an introduction to the theory, history, research, and practice of this emotion-centered, humanistic approach to psychotherapy.For when they had wearied of hurling insults at my father's back, the two gentlemen began to discuss their host - that is to say, my father's employer, Mr John Silvers. Not so long ago, if any such points of ambiguity arose regarding one's duties, one had the comfort of knowing that before long some fellow professional whose opinion one respected would be accompanying their employer to the house, and there would be ample opportunity to discuss the matter.

There he attracted his employer's attention with a polite cough, then whispered in the latter's ear: "I'm very sorry, sir, but there appears to be a tiger in the dining room.

Yet it is my firm conviction that at the peak of his career at Loughborough House, my father was indeed the embodiment of 'dignity'. It is most unwise for an inexperienced student to concentrate on the psychic centres in the human body, however pure the motive, for concentration upon a centre stimulates its functioning, and as most people function primarily through the centres below the diaphragm, which govern sex and the lower emotions, their stimulation is clearly as unwise as it is dangerous.

He feels that whatever he may gain by any exercise or experience in his will, his goodwill and his intelligence is all to the good, quite apart from any so-called material gain, and there is no objection to that in addition. When I parted them just a moment ago, the light outside was still very pale and something of a mist was affecting my view of the baker's shop and chemist's opposite. Concentration is voluntary attentiveness to something.

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